Development of Cerebral Endoscopy in Italy: Background, Narration, and Legacy

Author:Pierluigi Longatti, Alessandro Fiorindi, Sara Bruscella, Paolo Cappabianca
Published on:World Neurosurgery Volume 134, February 2020, Pages 396-401



Bibliometric analysis shows that neuroendoscopy (NE) overcame its pioneering phase in the late 1980s, and became a significant technological and clinical innovation in the early 1990s. During those years the charge-coupled device digital video cameras were introduced and videoendoscopy had its decisive breakthrough, laying the foundation for NE take-off. NE can be considered an early product of artificial intelligence, as much as neuroimaging and neuro- navigation. In Italy, cerebral NE started in 1993 and, despite a couple of years of relative delay, gained ground rapidly thanks also to the personal contribution of Michelangelo Gangemi (1949e2017), to whose memory this article is dedicated. In this paper we try to re-create the history of Italian NE through original doc- uments and other testimonials, in the context of the general worldwide devel- opment of NE. The modality of its rapid diffusion throughout our peninsula seems a good paradigm of how cooperation without unnecessary competition can be rewarding and constructive.

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